Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Juan is a 44-year-old who works in a warehouse. He is 5′8″, weighs 185 pounds, and has a waist circumference of 41″. At his last visit to the health clinic, Juan’s blood pressure was 140/60 mm Hg. Shortly after having a series of blood tests, his physician called him in to talk about the results. Juan had a fasting plasma glucose level of 107 mg/dL, an HDL level of 37 mg/dL, and a serum triglyceride level of 210 mg/dL.

  1. What condition is Juan likely presenting with? What are      the spectrum of physiological abnormalities that occur with this disorder?
  2. What is the significance of Juan’s waist diameter? How      is truncal obesity hypothesized to increase insulin resistance in the      body?
  3. In type 1 diabetes, there are hypoinsulinemia and      hyperglycemia. In type 2 diabetes, it is common to see hyperinsulinemia      and hyperglycemia. Why do the differences exist?