Early Childhood: Emotional and Social Development

1. Research has indicated that children aged 5 and aged 7 who employed ________solutions were

judged to be more socially competent, displaying fewer attention problems and disruptive


A. prosocial

B. cognitive

C. logical

D. surreptitious

2. All of the following can contribute to delays in emotional self-regulation EXCEPT:

A. prematurity

B. developmental disabilities

C. parental divorce

D. low-income household

3. All of the following tend to characterize girls’ play EXCEPT:

A. it is more intimate

B. it is likely to consist of a two-person group

C. it is more “rough and tumble”

D. it is less competitive than boys’ play

4. Researchers have found that therapeutic play:

A. tends to increase children’s aggressive behavior

B. tends to make children feel even more anxiety

C. tends to help children to express their emotions

D. tends to take away children’s sense of control

5. American parents typically tend to encourage which characteristics in their children’s play


A. exploration

B. imagination

C. independence

D. all of these

6. The view that supports suppression of individual desire in favor of what is best for the group:

A. is rarer in Asian cultures

B. is known as collectivism

C. decreases bonding with parents

D. decreases obedience to authority

Page 1 (Chapter 8 Survey)

7. According to your textbook, around what age do children begin to develop the cognitive skills to

categorize people into different racial groups by using physical characteristics and social cues?

A. 3 B. 5

C. 7 D. 9

8. A person’s sense of self-worth or self-image is part of the overall dimension called:

A. self-esteem B. positive regard

C. cultural awareness D. performance initiative

9. Research has found that childhood self-esteem can:

A. have lifelong effects on attitudes and behavior

B. affect school performance

C. affect family relationships

D. all of these

10. The cognitive structure that we employ for selecting and processing information about ourselves

is the ________.

A. personality

B. self

C. personal cognitive structure

D. character

11. One of the central issues of early childhood is:

A. the child learning to trust the child’s caretakers

B. comprehending the concept of object permanence

C. developing a sense of a separate and distinct self

D. developmental achievement of ego integration

12. _______ is a particular type of motivation and inner strength that directs life and growth in such

a way as to become all one is capable of being.

A. Telepathy

B. Entelechy

C. Impulse

D. Impetus

13. The sets of cultural expectations that define the ways in which the members of each sex such

behave are known as:

A. gender roles

B. stereotypes

C. gender types

D. sexual categories

14. Gender identity is:

A. the characteristic traits one is born with

B. not related to socializing influences

C. an inherited characteristic

D. conception of self as male or female

Page 2 (Chapter 8 Survey)

15. Gender identity usually begins to form around what ages?

A. 1 to 2

B. 3 to 4

C. 5 to 6

D. 7 to 8

16. Brian has a favorite toy that is a baby doll. This is upsetting to Brian’s father because it conflicts

with society’s view of proper gender __________.

A. realities

B. roles

C. identities

D. characteristic

17. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding hormones?

A. Both males and females have male and female hormones.

B. Progesterone makes males more aggressive than females.

C. The ratio of each hormone varies in males and females.

D. The predominance of female or male hormones influences the development of the fetal brain.

18. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true?

A. Boys tend to be more verbal at an earlier age than girls do.

B. Girls have a greater tendency to be diagnosed with dyslexia.

C. Girls tend to be more analytical than boys, who are more active.

D. Girls tend to show more interest in people-oriented activities.

19. The theory associated with Lawrence Kohlberg, which claims that children first learn to label

themselves as “male” and “female” and then attempt to master the behaviors that fit their gender

category, is called:

A. psychosocial

B. psychoanalytical

C. cognitive learning

D. cognitive developmental

20. The process of transmitting culture, knowledge, skills, and dispositions that enable children to

participate effectively in group life is called:

A. conviviality

B. socialization

C. gender stereotyping

D. synchronization